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Managerial Economics - Reference

  • The sum of all individual demands constitutes________= market demand
  • Under perfect competition, price is determined by the interaction of total demand and total supply in the market.= False
  • Price of a product under perfect competition is determined by the interaction of total supply and= total demand
  • The cost which enter the accounts book of the firm are referred as ________.= Accounting cost
  • Keynes’s theory of employment explains= Effective demand , Aggregate supply , Aggregate demand
  • The type economic problem is= universal
  • An individual consumer or particular market for a given commodity are the subject matter of= Micro Economics
  • Features of the firm are= It is a business unit organized under one ownership , It is a sole proprietorship , It is a partnership or joint stock company
  • Whether the economy's capacity to produce goods and services is growing from year to year or remaining static is studied under the= Theory of economic growth
  • Co-operative organizations is= voluntary organization , managed by democratic principle , organization, which performs its business within the members
  • Assumptions underlying the law of Supply are= The cost of production is unchanged , No change in technique of production , Government policies are unchanged
  • Macro-economies is a policy oriented science.= True
  • Expansion of supply is shown by the movement in the supply curve which is= upward
  • Liability of a sole trader is= unlimited
  • If the output rises in the greater proportion than that of the increase in factor inputs, it is referred to as ________.= increasing returns to scale.
  • An upward sloping demand curve is called ________= exceptional demand curve
  • Every nation’s resources which are used to produce the quantities of goods and services that would be required to satisfy all its citizen’s wants are= insufficient
  • The act of making goods and services is called= production
  • related to the efficient production and allocation belong to the branch of economic theory called= Welfare Economics
  • The act of using goods and services to satisfy wants is called= consumption
  • Explicit costs are= Out of pocket costs , These are firms accounting expenses , Expenditure
  • In the 3rd stage of operation of the law of variable proportions, the marginal product becomes ________.= negative
  • The Keynesian theory emphasizes effective supply as a crucial factor in determining the level of income and employment.= False
  • The things that are produced by factors of production are called= commodities
  • By ' profits', the accountant means total revenue minus________.
  • Explicit costs
  • All the buyers and sellers operating under perfect competition have knowledge which is= perfect
  • Resource allocation decisions in free market economy= Theory of price Economic problem= Universal ,Managerial Economics =Applied branch of knowledge ,Inflation= Reduction in purchasing power ,Waste of resources= Involuntary unemployment
  • The phase of recovery denotes= More employment opportunities , Increase in profitability , Wage rate increase
  • Supply is predominantly determined by ________.= stock
  • The form of organization which is best for self employment is ________.
  • Sole trader
  • The suggestion of maximization of balanced growth rate as another alternative objective of a firm's profit is suggested by= Prof. Morris
  • Under perfect competition,firms are free to enter and exit in the market.
  • =True
  • J.M. Keynes, on the basis of a fundamental psychological law of consumption, observed that as income increases, consumption also increases, but proportionately= less
  • The Risk theory of profit was developed by= Hawley
  • The congress government led by Narsimha Rao announced the New Industrial Policy in July 1991.= True
  • Perfectly elastic demand curve is ________= horizontal
  • The distinction between fixed costs and variable costs is relevant in the short period only.= True
  • The term externalities may also be referred as:= Spill-over effects , Neighborhood effects , Third party effects
  • Methods of forecasting demand for new products are= Product life cycle analysis , Test marketing , Evolutionary approach
  • Often monopolies purposely keep certain factors of production idle creating artificial scarcities of their products as a result the prices= rise
  • The methods of calculating depreciation is= Diminishing Balance Method , Annuity Method , Service Unit
  • Human wants= unlimited .General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money= J. M. Keynes,Managerial economics= Decision making and forward planning ,Resources= scarce ,Commodities= goods and services
  • In the context of formulating an investment project, ________ feasibility means the availability of supervisors for implementing and running the project smoothly and professionally.= management
  • The sum of total fixed costs and total variable costs is the total cost.= True
  • Features of Market are= Place where buyers and sellers meet each other , A building where a number of shops dealing in a particular commodity exist , A place where transaction of goods and services is undertaken
  • Managerial economics is also understood to refer to= applied economics
  • Private profit motive is an essential feature of Capitalism.= True
  • Assignment -2
  • In case of a proprietary firm the liability of the proprietor is limited.=False
  • Accounting profit includes :-=Wages , Rent , Interest
  • In experimental price approach the firms takes some cognizance of the demand for the product and proceeds to fix a price by a trial and error method.=True
  • Defects of market system:-=Inequalities of income and wealth , Emergence of monopolies , Failure to provide full employment
  • In case of perfectly elastic supply, the supply curve is :-=Horizontal
  • Every nation’s resources which are used to produce the quantities of goods and services that would be required to satisfy all its citizen’s wants are=insufficient
  • Economists have pointed out that the real world is full of :-=Imperfect competition
  • Characteristics of Pure Public goods are:-=They are completely indivisible , Their marginal cost would be zero or close to zero , Their benefits cannot be priced
  • Main aims of the New Industrial Policy (1991) are :--=To unshackle the Indian industrial economy from the cobwebs of unnecessary bureaucratic control , To introduce liberalization with a view to integrate the Indian economy with the world economy , To remove restrictions on direct foreign investment as also to free the domestic entrepreneur from the restriction of MRTP act
  • Under perfect competition, generally demand and supply act and react upon each other and determine the price=equilibrium
  • Factors leading to differences in the economic & the traditional concepts of valuation are :-=Inventory Valuation , Depreciation , Unaccounted value changes in the assets & liabilities
  • Super-normal profit is also called ________.=Excess profit
  • Under cost plus pricing :-=Actual costs, standard costs are included , Certain percentage of profit also included , The price is set to cover material, labour
  • Consumer’s protection involves protection to the consumers from unfair trade practices.=True
  • When Government repays old loans, the purchasing power at the disposal of the people ________.=Increases
  • The law of supply is not hypothetical.=False
  • A firm gets an opportunity to produce multiple products because changes in business activity in a firms is :-=Cyclical
  • When a change in income has no effect upon the quantity demanded of a product, the income elasticity of demand is zero.=True
  • Managerial economics generally refers to the integration of economic theory with business=Practice
  • Propensity to consume is defined as the relationship between consumption and ________.=Income
  • Public enterprises have shown a very high rate of return of the capital invested.=False
  • ________ effects are those externalities which flow from the production or use of the good to other parties or economic units.=Third party
  • In the traditional concept of equilibrium, a firm attains the equilibrium when the firm’s Total Revenue (T.R.) =Total Cost (T.C.).=False
  • The method of inventory valuation in which, the cost of production is calculated on the assumption that the material which was last to enter the inventory of the company was used first is :-=LIFO
  • Supply management is related to the volume of supply & its distribution system.=True
  • Demand is determined by :-=Price of the product , Relative prices of other goods , Tastes and habits
  • Different types of Elasticity of Demand are :-=Cross elasticity of demand , Price elasticity of demand , Income elasticity of demand
  • In case of a Joint-Stock Company, the liability of share holders is :-=Limited
  • Expansion of supply is shown by the movement in the supply curve which is :-=Upward
  • Saving is a :-=Private virtue
  • According to the Government, the building up of inflationary pressure during the Nineties was attributed to :-=Higher Fiscal deficit
  • A competitive industry has three basic characteristics :-=Large Number of Firms , Homogeneous Product , Free entry and exit
  • The income which a businessman might expect from the second best alternative use of his resources is called as :-=Opportunity cost
  • Advertising forms an integral part of decision-making and________.=
  • Forward – planning
  • Exceptions to the Law of Demand are :-=Griffin goods , Articles of snob appeal , Speculation
  • True inflation starts only after reaching ________=Level of full employment
  • The financing of ________ goods is done through Public expenditure.=
  • Public
  • Assumptions of the Law of Demand are :-=No change in consumer’s income , No change in consumer’s preferences , No change in fashion
  • Types of Share capital of Joint-Stock Company are :-=Registered or authorized capital , Issued capital , Paid-up capital
  • During the period of depression, a large part of a country’s resources lie involuntarily idle.=True
  • Under the New Industrial Policy, in order to invite foreign investment in high priority industries, it was decided to provide approval for direct foreign investment upto 51% equity in such industries.=True
  • Assignment-3
  • The concept of Perfect competition includes all the features of :-=Pure competition
  • An entrepreneur may earn high profits just by luck, say because of outbreak of war. This is known as :-=Chance Profits
  • Features of Dumping are :-=It is possible in the case of monopoly market , Selling same good at higher price in home market and at lower price in international market , It is encouraged with a view to promote the exports
  • In macro – economic analysis the behavior of economic agents such as firms, households and government is seen in total, disregarding details at particular level.=true
  • Changes in the value of money because of inflation, make inventory valuation of finished products difficult.=True
  • The partnership between private sector & government is called ________.=Joint sector enterprise
  • According to Keynes there are three motives for holding cash for liquidity preference :-=The speculative motive , The transactions motive , The precautionary motive
  • If the substitutes are relatively costly then the demand for the commodity in will be :-=More
  • The Laws of Returns to scale are :-=Law of Increasing Returns to Scale , Law of Constant Returns to Scale , Law of Decreasing Returns to scale
  • Increasing Returns explains :-=Total product increases at an increasing rate , Marginal product increasing and it is maximum , Average product is increasing but it is below MP
  • The prosperity phase is characterized by rise in the level of employment.=true
  • Baumol has suggested as an alternative objective for profit maximization, the maximization of ________.=sales
  • The profit which is surplus of revenue over and above all paid out cost is :-
  • Accounting Profit
  • In perfect competition various factors of production are assumed to be ________.=Perfectly mobile
  • Keynes, on the basis of a fundamental psychological law, observed that as income ________, consumption Increases.=Increases
  • Pure private goods are completely divisible and to them the principle of exclusion applies in full measure.=True
  • The taxation & public expenditure policies are called as ________ ..
  • #NAME?
  • The disinvestments of industries is needed for :-=
  • Phased privatization , Reducing deficit , Capital support to plans
  • In the context of externalities, driving the smoke-emitting buses and trucks in the cities is an example of ________ cost.=Social
  • The concept of just distribution of national product is a=
  • normative
  • The government also fixes minimum procurement prices for major crops on the recommendation of the Agricultural Prices Commission (APC).
  • TRUE
  • According to Lionel Robbins definition of economics, "Economics is a science which :-=Studies human behaviour , Relationship between ends and scares resources , Scarce means have alternate uses
  • Features of monopolistic Competition are :-=
  • Fairly large number of firms , Product differentiation , Selling costs are existed
  • Steps in cost benefit analysis are :-=Identification of a project , Formulation of the project , Appraisal and selection of the project
  • There is no separation of ownership and management in case of a Joint Stock Company.=False
  • During a period of rising prices (inflation), the goods and services are :-
  • #NAME?
  • The cost recorded in the books of accounts are considered as :-
  • #NAME?
  • Variable cost are those costs which vary with the level of :-
  • #NAME?
  • Open market operations measures are ________.=Quantitative credit control
  • Managerial ________ lies on the borderline of management and Economics.=Economics
  • The demand for life saving drugs is elastic.=False
  • According J.B.Clark, profit is the reward paid for :-=Dynamism
  • The characteristics of a sole proprietorship firm is :-=
  • Unlimited Capital , Ownership by a single person , Easy to form
  • The rate of interest, according to Keynes depends upon two factors: the liquidity preference function and ________.=The quantity of money.
  • Assignment -4
  • In economics the related to the selection of methods with which commodities are produced is a subject matter of=theory of production
  • In economics the s related to the division of society’s output of goods and services among its members are topics in=theory of distribution
  • In economics the s related to the dynamic or static ( otherwise) capacity of the economy to produce goods and services are topics in the
  • #NAME?
  • All the free gifts of nature which are commonly called natural resources are known to economists as=Land
  • All the man made resources which are used in the process of making other goods and services are called=capital
  • Managerial economics aims at providing help in the firms is=
  • #NAME?
  • Economic problem is faced by poor countrys only.=False
  • An industry is a group of firms dealing in the same line of=business
  • Micro-economics is primarily concerned with the problem of what, how and for whom to produce=True
  • Pure public goods must be in the hands of public sector only.=True
  • The goods become ________ only when each individual has an access to the entire amount of it and its use by the individual does not reduce its availability to others.==indivisible
  • The externality which causes an economic gain or an economic loss to other economic units is also referred to as ________ externality.
  • #NAME?
  • In a market economy ________ is the best judge of personal interest.
  • #NAME?
  • The characteristics of a sole proprietorship firm is=Unlimited Capital , Ownership by a single person , Easy to form
  • Different types of business organizations are=private sector , public sector , joint sector
  • Reasonable profit target as an alternative to the objective of profit maximization was suggested by ________.=Joel Dean
  • Economic Profit takes in to account the=implicit cost
  • In any business, while formulating a profit policy, the possibility of emergence of rival firms must be taken in to account==True
  • The payments made out of the Gross Profit are=Remuneration to factors of production , Depreciation , Maintenance Charges
  • reasonable profit' are=Capital Attraction , Plough Back , Normal earnings
  • Complementary goods are demanded=jointly
  • Emergence of close substitutes to the commodity in may bring about demand to=decrease
  • The demand for a commodity depends on the prices of its substitutes which are=relative
  • Demand curve slopes downwards from left to right.=True
  • The index numbers which measure the changes in the general price level of a country refers to ________=Wholesale prices index
  • If the increase in all factors leads to a less than proportionate increase in output, then the returns to scale are=decreasing
  • The supply of factory made goods of daily consumption is inelastic.==False
  • Major types of costs are=Accounting costs , Economic costs , Opportunity costs
  • Output rises in a lesser proportion to that of the increase in input, under the case of ________.=decreasing returns to scale
  • If the output rises in the greater proportion than that of the increase in factor inputs, it is referred to as ________.=increasing returns to scale.
  • Under monopoly the demand curve slopes=downward
  • Dalal Street in Bombay is known as=Bombay Stock Exchange
  • The city of Banaras has specialized in the manufacture of=silk
  • A firm under perfect competition is a price maker.=False
  • Long period supply is relatively inelastic.=False
  • Equilibrium is the stage of==maximum satisfaction , balance , stationary
  • According to the Government, the buildup of inflationary pressure during the Nineties was attributed to=Higher Fiscal deficit
  • There is considerable slush money with politicians & Government servants.=True
  • Government intervention is needed in free market mechanism to
  • #NAME?
  • Defects of market system:=Inequalities of income and wealth , Emergence of monopolies , Failure to provide full employment
  • Resources are said to be involuntarily un employed when their wastage occur.=True
  • In cost - benefit analysis, after the step of appraisal and selection of the project is the step of=comparison of the cash flow
  • Social costs cannot be included in a firm's account book.=True
  • The advantage of cost-benefit analysis are=Maximization of social welfare , Objective measurement of the trade-off , Maximization of difference between total benefits & total costs
  • Cost-Benefit analysis aims at ________ of social wealth.=maximization
  • Modern economists treat social cost and benefits as ________ of private investment and production decisions.=externalities
  • According to many economists, the root cause of economic problem is
  • #NAME?
  • For an economist, Tata Eng & Locomotive Company Ltd is a=firm
  • Preference Shares can be classified as=Simple Shares , Cumulative Shares , Redeemable Shares
  • The promoters of a company can get incorporated by filing with the registrarof companies various documents such as=Memorandum of Association , Articles of Association , Prospectus
  • Forms of Public Enterprises=departmental management , company management or management by boards , public corporations
  • The minimum number of directors which public limited should have is ________.3
  • Measurement of profit becomes difficult because of the difficulty involved in the calculation of depreciation.=True
  • In economics, demand means desire backed by adequate=purchasing power
  • When more units of a commodity are purchased in response to decline in price of that commodity, it is called as expansion of=demand
  • Demand for products like tea, betel, tobacoo, sigaratte is a matter of
  • =habit
  • If the substitutes are relatively cheaper then the demand for the commodity in will be=less
  • A shift in the demand curve to the left shows increase in demand.=False
  • Demand for luxury goods is inelastic=False
  • A normal demand curve has ________+B299=negative slope
  • Cost function denotes=The prices of such inputs as labour and capital material , The rate of output , The size of the plant
  • The law of constant returns to scale is depicted by the marginal output curve which is ________.=horizontal
  • In the 3rd stage of operation of the law of variable proportions, the marginal product becomes ________.=negative
  • The costs which cover the cost of advertising is ________.=Selling cost
  • Features of Oligopoly Market are=Few sellers , Restriction to entry of new firms , Price leadership
  • During periods of inflation, the income of farmers as a class decreases.
  • =True
  • To solve the unemployment problem , the level of effective demand must decrease.=False
  • Prosperity=Expansion of credit
  • The general theory of employment, Interest and money=J.M. Keynes
  • Trade cycle=Wave like movement
  • Statutory reserve ratio=Quantitative credit control measure
  • The characteristics of Inflation are=Excess of demand , Sustained rise in prices , Cannot be anticipated
  • Market system or market economy suffers from time to time from economic depressions.=True
  • Assigment-
  • Economists call all human resources as=labor
  • Economic problem arises only in case of an overpopulated country.=False
  • All the buyers and sellers operating under perfect competition have knowledge=perfect
  • The meaning of the word “economic” is most closely associated with the word unlimited=True
  • The conditions of equilibrium of a firm are applicable to all markets=None
  • In case of the co-operative societies supplying cheap inputs or supplying consumer products at fair prices, a system of subsidized pricing is followed
  • TRUE
  • The price of a good and the exclusion princople together is=divisibility
  • The liability of a sole proprietary firm is=unlimited
  • Institution of private property is not an essential feature of Capitalism
  • FALSE
  • There never was in any country at any time ‘pure capitalism’ or ‘pure communism=True
  • The railways using a lot of coal in firing the steam locomotives put the residential and other areas near the loco – shades to a lot of sufferings on account of smoke nuisance, is an example of pr=False
  • A Joint stock company has perpetual succession.=True
  • The management of the cooperative form of business organization is totalitarian in nature.=False
  • In Trade cycles the economic activity are=ups and downs
  • In macro – economic analysis the behavior of economic agents such as firms, households and government is seen in total, disregarding details at particular level= True
  • Market economy or private enterprise economy is a economy which is
  • #NAME?
  • New commodities due to technotogical progress may result in demand for traditional type of goods=decrease
  • If a person is habituated to the consumption of a commodity and if he cannot easily give up its use, demand for it is generally==inelastic
  • Normal demand curve=Downwards to right
  • Income consumption curve=Upwards to the right
  • Inelastic demand curve=Vertical straight line
  • Cross elasticity of demand between two perfect substitute will be=Infinity
  • A demand curve, which takes the form of a horizontal line parallelto the quantity axis illustrates elasticity=Infinity.
  • The law of diminishing returns is applicable to agriculture provided the state of technology is given and=constant
  • Under the system of dual prices in case of essential goods, adopted by the government, the weaker sections of the community are supplied these goods through fair price shops whi=fair
  • The Government attempts to increase supplies of food grains and other essential goods in times of internal shortage through larger=imports
  • External economies are the advantages of large scale production enjoyed exclusively an individual firm alone.=False
  • Equilibrium is=The stage of maximum satisfaction , The stage of balance , The stage of stationary
  • Conditions of equilibrium=Marginal Revenue should be equal to Marginal Cost , The Marginal cost curve should cut the marginal revenue curve from below at the equilibrium point , Marginal cost curve should be increasing at equilibrium point
  • Cost-benefit analysis refers to the analysis undertaken to judge any projects ________ whether government or private and find out its ________ and facilities its comparison with other available opporortunity==investments,worth
  • Aggregate supply function=Refers to that price at which the seller is willing to supply , Refers to show the varying level of supply at different prices , Explains the level of out put varies with the level of employment
  • Characteristics of Depression=Decrease in economic activities , The growth rate becomes negative , The level of national income declines rapidly
  • Recession includes=The demand is halted , Increase in production of goods , Inventories piling up in stocks
  • The causes of inflation=Increase in public expenditure , Increase in private expenditure , Increase in foreign demand
  • In the ________ terminology, the ________ demand function refers to the schedule of maximum sales proceeds, which the entrepreneurial community actually does expect to be received from the sale of=Keynesian

  • aggregate
  • The rate of interest, according to ________ , depends upon two factors: (i) ________ and (ii) the quantity of money=Keynes,the liquidity preference function
  • Reasons for need of public distribution system=To maintain stable price conditions , An efficient management of the supply , To supply the necessary goods to people at reasonable price
  • The consumer protection Act includes=Protection from hazardous commodities , Right to a competitive price , Right to information regarding protection
  • Objectives of economic policy=To increase the efficiency and international competitiveness of industrial production , To improve the performance and rationalize the scope of the public sector , To reform and modernize the financial sector
  • Scope of Managerial Economics deals with:=Demand analysis and forecasting. , Production function & cost analysis. , Inventory management adverting, price system.
  • Types of income elasticity of demand=Negative income elasticity , Zero income elasticity , Unit income elasticity
  • The problem of unlimited wants and limited ________ with ________ uses has been forever confronting mankind.=means,alternative
  • As per the International Labour Organisation (ILO), _ ________ is a ________ association of individuals with limited income on the basis of equal rights and responsibilities for achieving certain=Co-operation,
  • voluntary
  • Like all organism, the ________ , too is an organism, according to the ________ theory.=firm,life-cycle theory
  • The ________-taking theory was developed by the ________ . According to him, profit arises because considerable amount of risk is involved in business.=American economist Hawley,risk
  • The extent of the change of demand for a commodity to a given change in ________ , other demand determinants remaining constant, is termed as the ________ of demand.=price,price elasticity
  • Indices constructed for one ________ should not be ________ for other purposes where they not be fully appropriate and given erroneous conclusions.=,purpose,used
  • The law of diminishing returns states that, ‘as the proportion of one factor in a combination of factors is ________ after a point, first the _______ and then the average product of that factor w=increased,marginal
  • Statutory Reserve Ratio=Quantitative credit Control Measure
  • Trade cycle=Wave – like movement
  • Keynesian theory=Short – Period Analysis
  • Aggregate Demand Function=Maximum sale proceeds expected by entrepreneurs
  • Effective Demand=J. M. Keynes
  • Assignment
  • Pure public goods are subject to the law of decreasing average cost, because of the= economies of scale
  • In the cost - benefit analysis, after formulating various alternative project capacity, each of them has to be examined in terms of its= feasibility
  • Bargaining is one of the remedies of corrective action.= False
  • Defence service =Indivisible
  • Economic effects of public goods are= Spill over effect
  • Selection or implementation= Step of cost benefit analysis
  • Production possibility frontier =Maximization of output
  • The term externalities may also be referred as:= Spill-over effects , Neighborhood effects , Third party effects
  • Modern economists treat social cost and benefits as ________ of private investment and production decisions.= externalities
  • Economists like A.C.Harberger have shown that the cost benefit analysis can be applied to ________ analysis.= general equilibrium
  • Prof. Sam Nelson calls risks from unsafe factories or nuclear power plants as ________ economies. =negative
  • Managerial economics deals with= Integration of economic theory with business practice , Using logic of economics, mathematics & statistics , The use of economic modes of thought to analyze business solution
  • The public sector is owned & controlled by= state enterprises
  • “Homeostatic Approach” as an alternative objective of firms was suggested by ________.= Prof. Kenneth Boulding
  • Accounting profit takes in to account opportunity cost. =False
  • There are no real exceptions to the law of demand =False
  • Goods which are paradoxical to the law of demand are ________= Giffen goods, ,
  • Normally the isoquant slopes= upward from right to left
  • Any straight line supply curve which cuts y axis will have= zero elasticity of supply.
  • The market period supply curve for perishable commodities is =perfectly inelastic.
  • A rightwards shift in supply schedule indicates= an increase in supply.
  • Jevons' , the economists who defined the term 'market' different from that of the traditional sense is an= English economists
  • Under perfect competition single seller can influence the price. =False
  • Types of imperfect competition are= Monopoly , Duopoly , Oligopoly
  • Features of Pure Competition are= Large number of buyers and sellers , Homogeneous products , Free entry and free exit of firms
  • Inflation is a phenomena in which prices= rise
  • During inflation, the pensioners whose income is permanently fixed, are substantially benefited.= False
  • According to Keynes, Aggregate supply function refers to= the minimum price of revenue which the entrepreneurs must get , Associated with different levels of employment , Explains that the level of out put varies with the level of employment
  • Marginal Propensity to consume is characterized as follows= It is defined as the ratio of the change in consumption to the change in income , It is rate of change in the average propensity to consume as income changes , It is derived by the formula mpc= change in c/change in y
  • During the period of depression various factors of production are=exhausted
  • In general SBI uses its monetary policy to achieve a judicious balance between the growth of production and control of the general price level.
  • FALSE
  • The meaning of monetary policy is= It is programmed of the central bank , It controls the total supply of money , The basic objective is to achieve economic stability
  • Main aims of the New Industrial Policy (1991) are =To unshackle the indian industrial economy from the cobwebs of unnecessary bureaucratic control , To introduce liberalization with a view to integrate the indian economy with the world economy , To remove restrictions on direct foreign investment as also to free the domestic entrepreneur from the restriction of MRTP act
  • The study of the working and allocation of resources in the free market economies is the topic in the=theory of price
  • The federal government of U.S.A. does not face the basic economic problem.=False
  • In equilibrium analysis of a firm, it is assumed that every individual proprietor exhibits rational economic=behavior
  • Managerial Economics=Prescriptive in nature
  • Resources=Alternative uses
  • Division of society’s output of goods and services=The theory of distribution,Motor cars=Tangible goods
  • Wants=Insatiable
  • Market price fluctuates very often=True
  • The firm is the unit that makes the decisions regarding employment of and the output of commodities are=factors of production
  • The principle of exclusion cannot be applied to the goods which are
  • =indivisible
  • In the cost – benefit analysis, the firm step involved is that the investor has to choose a few project alternatives promising a rate of return which is
  • =high
  • Market system of economy is characterized by consumer’s= sovereignty
  • The divisible goods, whose benefits can be priced, are called pure public goods=False
  • During the phase of depression, the level of national income and expenditure rises rapidly=False
  • Gross profit is the excess of total revenue of a firm over total=expenditure
  • In general, the demand for necessaries is relatively=inelastic
  • Demand for food grains is inelastic but the demand for wheat is elastic.
  • =True
  • Excess supply can be defined as=Quantity supplied minus quantity demanded,If demand remain unchanged on increase in supply will result in=A rise in equilibrium quantity
  • Market Price is a situation which=The supply is perfectly elastic
  • The responsiveness of demand to change in price is measured=Elasticity of demand
  • Unit income elasticity implies that asincome rises demand for a commodity rises=In the same proportion
  • Greater scope for the ________ sector may mean incremental ________ , which connotes the expansion of public sector undertakings, can be left to some private companies=private,disinvestments
  • Goods produced on small scale of supply is=inelastic
  • Contraction of supply is traced by the downward movement on the supply curve.=True
  • The laws of returns to scale explain the behavior of output in response to changes in scale.=True\
  • In the stage I of the law of diminishing returns, the marginal product goes on increasing=True
  • Where ________ is charging a ________ in the home market and a lower price in the international market, it is called Dumping=monopolist,higher price
  • The number of sellers operating under this type of competition is ________ under oligopoly, but less than under ________=larger than,perfect ompetition
  • Investment=It adds to capital equipments , It leads to increase in level of income , It includes new plant and equipment
  • Features of stage of expansion in business cycle are=Rise in national output , Rise in consumer and capital expenditure , Bank advances grow rapidly
  • In the words of ________ , “inflation occurs when the ________ of prices and cost is rising”.=Prof. Samuelson,general level
  • Specific organizational goals of Firms are:=Maximisation of profit , Reasonable Profit Target , Sales revenue Maximization
  • Individual Demand Schedule:=Is in tabular form , It shows the prices of goods , It shows the quantities of a commodity purchased
  • The production function can be explained by:=Law of variable proportions , Laws of returns to scale , Optimum combinations of inputs
  • Implicit costs are:=Cost on self owned resources , Costs of salary of the proprietor , Interest on the entrepreneur's own investment
  • In a competitive industry, there is a large number of firms so that the action of ________ firm has ________ on the price and output of the whole industry.=a single,no effect
  • The word ________ has different meanings to businessmen, ________ , tax collectors, workers and economists and it is often used in a loose sense that buries its real significance=Profit,accountants
  • The demand curve is ________ representation of a demand schedule, demand curve slopes ________ ward from left to right.=graphical,down
  • The ________ that is ________ is the opportunity cost of the commodity produced.=sacrificed, commodity
  • Inflation reduces the purchasing power of money and savings.=True
  • The supply curve during market period is perfectly=inelastic
  • The price policy under monopolistic competition is dependent on the prices charged by other rival firms=True
  • All firms producing the same or similar product together make=an industry
  • ‘Free riders’ is a term associated with the people who would like to have benefit of a good without sharing the cost of its supply=True
  • Macro – economics provides an exploration to the functioning of an economy in=general
  • Inflation is a great opportunity for merchants to benefit more.=True
  • The various phases of business cycles are shown by the line of cycle which moves up and down the steady growth line=True
  • In the measurement of profit, the differences in the concept of profit arise out of the differences in cost concepts=True
  • In economics demand means desire backed by adequate=purchasing power
  • Under the monetary measures to control inflation, the R. B. I relies heavily on selective credit controls on bank loans against food grains, sugar, oils, oilseeds, cotton etc so as to discourage=Speculative hoarding
  • Slope of supply curve is=positive
  • Costs which increase because of the expansion of a firm are called costs
  • =incremental
  • The opportunity cost of a product is the opportunity gained of being able to produce some other product.=False
  • The supply curve in case of unitary elastic supply is rectangular hyperbola.
  • =False
  • An Industry=Is a group of firms , All firms dealing in the same line of business , The ownership and management of each firm is different
  • Under monopoly, there is ________ seller who controls the entire ________ in the market=only one ,supply
  • Under monopsony, there are ________ sellers but ________ buyer
  • =many,only one
  • Marginal utility=Addition to total utility
  • Total utility increases marginal=Posative and declining
  • At the saturation point for a commodity x the Mux is=Zero
  • Marginal utilities are=Demand curve of a commodity
  • Total utility is=Marginal utility is zero
  • By using cost-benefit analysis we can show the ________ necessary for attaining maximum ________ and optimal policy aiming at this goal=measures,net wealth
  • Average propensity to consume=It is defined as the ratio of consumption expenditure to any particular level of income , It is found by dividing consumption expenditure by income , It is expressed as the percentage of income consumed
  • Inflation means=It is a phenomenon of rising prices , It is a general and dynamic phenomenon , It includes an excess of demand
  • Aggregate supply function refers to a ________ of the various minimum amounts of proceeds or ________ , which must be expected to be received by the entrepreneur class from the sale of output result= schedule,revenues
  • The fiscal policy includes=Formation of taxation policy , It is an instrument for economic stabilization , Monitoring of public expenditure
  • Causes for rise in prices in India=Mounting government expenditure , Deficit financing and increase in money supply , Role of black money
  • The sources of economic problems are:=Man has unlimited wants or ends , The means or resources to satisfy them are limited. , These resources are not specific but have alternative uses.
  • Methods of measurement of elasticity=Percentage Method , Point elasticity Method , Total outlay expenditure method
  • Demand forecasts are necessary for:=Fulfillment of objective of the plans , Preparation of a budget , Expansion of firms
  • Economic theory provides the basis for the ________ _ making process, there is some difference between the generalization based on abstraction and actual practices. Besides economic theory, mat=decision makingoptimal
  • The resources of a society consist not only of the free gifts of nature such as ________ but also of ________ and of all sorts of man made aids to further production.=land and minerals, human capacity
  • Individual or sole ________ , which is also called sole- ________ , or single entrepreneurship is the most common, the simplest and the oldest form of business organisation.=proprietorship, ,trader ship
  • Nominal cost is the ________ cost of production, it is also called expenses of production. The real cost is the ________ cost of production.
  • =money,opportunity
  • Costs may be classified as : (a) ________ , including material costs, wage cost and interest cost (b) ________ , including costs of advertising and (c) other costs, including insurance ch=Production costs,Selling costs
  • The costs of self owned resources, which are employed by the ________ , are non- expenditure or , ________=firm,implicit costs .
  • Assignment
  • A monopolist in a price maker.=True
  • The city of Faridabad has specialized in the manufacture of=bangles
  • Baumol has pointed out three main contributions of economic theory. They are=Economic theory offers clarity to various concepts used in the business anlayses , Economic theory contributes in building anlyatical model to rocognize managerial problems , Economic theory contributes to ,'a set of analytical methods' which enhance the analytical capabilities of business analyasis
  • In case of indivisible goods, which are not priced, the decisions regarding their demand preferences are taken through price mechanism.==False
  • With decline in price of a commodity, total expenditure spent on the commodity is less than before, then elasticity of demand for the commodity is=<>
  • N.G.O.S=Voluntary social work
  • Sole proprietorship=Unlimited liability
  • Preference shares=Fixed rate of dividend
  • Public enterprises=State control
  • Market mechanism is characterized by= instability
  • Generally, the larger the income of a consumer, his demand for overall commodities tends to be relatively elastic.=False
  • The production function studies=Input and out put relation , Factors of production and final production , Technology used in production
  • The index numbers which are compiled to measure the changes in retail prices of various commodities refers to ________=Retail prices index
  • The minimum number of directors which private limited should have is ________.2
  • Under monopoly entry of new firms is=prohibited
  • The firm is a center, where all the decisions are taken about=production
  • under the imperfect market, the market in which few firms exists is called as=Oligopoly
  • There are no real exceptions to the law of demand=False
  • Sole Proprietorship which is also called sole ________=tradership
  • Non-price competition=advertisement.
  • Prestige price=high price on account of prestige considerations.
  • Administered prices=public sector undertaking.
  • Pricing in cooperative societies=state government.
  • The demand curve (A.R.) of a firm under perfect competition is=perfectly elastic
  • By using cost-benefit analysis we can show the measures necessary for attaining maximum ________ and optimal policy aiming at this goal.
  • net wealth
  • causes of inflation are=Increase in public expenditure , Increase in private expenditure , Increase in foreign demand
  • Features of short run period are=Supply of goods can be adjusted to the demand to some extent , Supply and demand determine the price , Some factors can be changed
  • A supply schedule is a graphical presentation of supply patterns.=False
  • The subject matter of macro – economics includes the theory of income and employment at an individual level.=False
  • When demand for the product increases in the same proportion in which income increases, Income elasticity of demand will be equal to________=unity
  • Features of stage of expansion in business cycle are=Rise in national output , Rise in consumer and capital expenditure , Bank advances grow rapidly
  • An assembly of several machines, linked together either physically or by processes, capable of producing a given quantity of a product per day is=plant
  • The Risk Taking Theory was developed by Hawley, who was an=American Economist
  • The persons who own the ________hip concern are called Partners.=
  • Partners
  • Perfectly elastic demand curve is ________=horizontal
  • While discussing the product divisibility of public and private goods, the principle of ________ may be applied in case of only those people who do not agree to pay or who cannot pay the market price=exclusion
  • A plant is an economic unit which takes various decisions related to production and distribution.=False
  • Features of an Industry are=All firms dealing in the same line of business , The ownership and management of each firm is different , Is a group of firms
  • During recession, on account of decline in investment by producers, there is decline in income and consumption.=True
  • The fiscal policy includes=Monitoring of public expenditure , Formation of taxation policy , It is an instrument for economic stabilization
  • Forecasts made either through experience or through methodigistic are=statistical
  • According to Prof. F.H. Knight, profit is a reward for=uncertainty bearing
  • The principle of full employment equilibrium was stated by=Say's Law of Market
  • Phases of business cycle=Expansion , Peak , Recession
  • Goods which are completely divisible and to them the principle of exclusion applies in full measure, are called-=Pure public goods
  • Assumptions underlying the law of Supply are=The cost of production is unchanged , No change in technique of production , Government policies are unchanged
  • The indivisible goods to which the principle exclusion does not apply are called ________ goods.=pure public
  • During period of depression various factors of production lie unutilized.=True
  • Co-operative organizations is=voluntary organization , managed by democratic principle , organization, which performs its business within the members
  • Macro economics is the study of the=aggregate behavior of economy
  • Demand for safety pins is ________=inelastic
  • Under perfect competition, generally demand and supply act and react upon each other and determine the price=equilibrium
  • During the period of recession there is increase in incomes of wage and interest earners.=False
  • The feasibility, which includes the prospects of employment generation, development of backward areas, social groups comprises of=Economic feasibility
  • As far as its use is concerned, tuning in of a radio can be categorized as:
  • Divisible
  • In a market system of economy, there is no harmony between individual interests and interests of the community.=False
  • In case of defense services, all the sections of the society are equally protected and benefited. The defense services in other words is=indivisible in character , cannot be priced in the market , a public good
  • On the ________ level, the summation of maximum individual welfare does not automatically lead to maximum social welfare.=macro
  • In the context of formulation of an investment project, ________ feasibility means the availability of land, plant, machinery, raw materials and technical know how etc.=technical
  • In a free-enterprise economy, the problems of what how and for whom are solved by a planning committee=False
  • A technical unit of given capacity of output is=plant
  • The sole proprietorship type of organization is found in=Agriculture, , Retail trade, , Hotel,
  • A private limited company can be formed with 2 to 50 members maximum, excluding ________=employee shareholders
  • Profit should be large enough for a plough – back for business expansion.
  • TRUE
  • Profit is regarded as=income accruing to the equity holders , wages accrue to the labour , rent accrue to the owner
  • Change in income of a person may result in demand for goods to=change
  • Peas & beas, groundnut oil & til oil, tea & coffee are examples of=substitutes goods
  • Demand for luxury goods is inelastic=False
  • Increase in demand=Upward shift of the demand curve
  • Extension of demand=Downward movement on the demand curve
  • Decrease in Demand=Leftward shift of the demand curve
  • Contraction of Demand=Upward movement on the demand curve
  • Increase in consumer’s income leads in the demand for inferior goods to ________=decrease
  • Reasons for change in Demand (Increase or Decrease in Demand)=
  • Change income of consumer , Change in population , Change in fashion and customs
  • AVC is the per unit variable cost of=production
  • Macro Economics is the study of=The aggregate behavior of the economy , The behavior of economic agents , Problems such as the rates of inflation, the balance of payments, etc
  • The subject matter of Micro economics includes the study of=an individual consumer , particular market for a given commodity , operation of a firm
  • Quantitative credit control measures are=open market operations , changes in bank rates , changes in statutory reserve ratio
  • The government has adopted a system of dual prices in the case of=
  • essential goods
  • The disinvestments of industries is needed for=Phased privatization , Reducing deficit , Capital support to plans
  • Pure public goods are subject to the law of decreasing average cost, because of the= economies of scale
  • Features of stage of expansion in business cycle are=Rise in national output , Rise in consumer and capital expenditure , Bank advances grow rapidly
  • Motor cars= Tangible goods
  • Wants = Insatiable
  • Managerial Economics = Prescriptive in nature
  • Resources= Alternative uses
  • Division of society’s output of goods and services= The theory of distribution
  • The regarding the nature and quantities of commodities to be produced is solely restricted to capitalist economies.= False
  • The subject matter of managerial economics covers two important areas namely decision-making and= forward Planning
  • Features of public sector enterprises= it is controlled by the state , separate funds to undertake their activity , they are accountable to public
  • In a market system of an economy, producers are guided by ________ motive.= profit
  • Normally, a larger quantity is demanded at= lower price
  • When a company rasies additional finance by borrowing from the public for a specific period of time at a particular rate of interest, it is called as
  • #NAME?
  • In cost benefit analysis, in the valuation of costs and benefits, for finding the present value, one has to make use of= discount rate
  • Like a particular street in a city , the entire city may sometimes specialize in the production of a particular commodity . The city acquire the status of a= national market
  • Cournot' , the economists who defined the term 'market' different from that of the traditional sense is an= French economists
  • A fall in quantity demanded without a fall in price shows decrease in demand.= True
  • A responsible factor for inflation is= hike in prices
  • Over the years in India the govt. expenditure is= increasing
  • Given the price, if the cost of production increases because of higher price of raw materials, the supply= decreases
  • Inflation is characterized by excess of demand.= True
  • Variable cost can refer to = operating costs alone.
  • The relationship between price and the quantity supplied of a product is indicated by= upward sloping curve.
  • Elasticity of supply means change in supply due to change in=. price of commodity.
  • Fixed cost is known as = prime cost.
  • In the Dynamic Theory of Profit, Prof. Clark has pointed out the types of changes, which are= Changes in the supply of capital , Changes in population , Changes in the techniques of production
  • Given the price, if the cost of production of a commodity decreases because of the use of improved technique of production, there will be increase in supply.= True
  • Production Function implies relationship between= input & output
  • The important determinants of supply are= Always referred to in relation to price & time , Government policy , Availability of factors of production
  • Demand for a commodity depends on the relative price of its ________=
  • substitute goods
  • Increasing Returns explains= Total product increases at an increasing rate , Marginal product increasing and it is maximum , Average product is increasing but it is below MP
  • Micro-economic theory studies how a free enterprise economy determines the price of economic resources= False
  • Break-Even analysis is derived by= Fixed cost , Average variable cost , Quantity of goods and price
  • In India, the first phase of economic reforms is believed to have begun in 1985 when Vishwanath Pratap Singh was the Prime Minister of the country.= False
  • Price discrimination is possible in case of= public utilities with legal sanction , personnel services sold , geographical barriers
  • Break even point T.R. = T.C.
  • Normal profit =Implicit cost
  • Average variable cost (A.V.C.) =Short run cost
  • Change in supply= Increase and decrease in supply
  • According to J.M. Keynes, the equilibrium between the aggregate demand function and the aggregate supply function can, and often does take place at= less than full employment
  • Important theories of profits are= Uncertainty-bearing theory of profit , Dynamic theory of profit , Life cycle theory
  • The necessary condition of profit maximization of a firm is that Marginal Revenue (M.R) must be equal to ________.= Marginal cost (M.C)
  • In economics, supply is considered to be a= relative term
  • Under the decreasing returns to scale, the marginal output curve slopes ________.= downward
  • The salary of the proprietor or rent on own land are the ________.= Implicit cost
  • The profits which must be deducted from the gross profits to arrive at net profits are= Monopoly Profits
  • We say that a nation faces economic problems , under following conditions= Man has unlimited wants or ends , The means or resources to satisfy them are limited , These resources are not specific but have alternative uses
  • A Joint- Stock Company is owned by its share holders but it is managed by= Board of Directors
  • The liability of a Karta in a Joint Hindu Family Business firm is ________.= limited
  • A fall in price tends the demand for goods to ________= expand
  • The supply curve slopes downwards from left to right.= False
  • Poverty is the root cause of Economic problem.= False
  • In case of a proprietory firm, the liability for all his debts is= unlimited
  • The city of Kashmir has specialized in the manufacture of= shawls
  • The Laws of Returns to scale are= Law of Increasing Returns to Scale , Law of Constant Returns to Scale , Law of Decreasing Returns to scale
  • The registration of a partnership firm is voluntary= true
  • The damage being done by the factories at and around Agra to Taj Mahal is an example of social cost for private benefit.= True
  • Index numbers may broadly be classified as= Price indices , Quantity indices , Special purpose indices
  • The examples of negative externalities are= nuclear power plants , gargantuan trucks , unsafe factories
  • Reduction in demand due to a new substitute in market= Uncertainity Accounting profit= Explicit costs
  • Economic profit= Pure profit
  • Risk taking theory = Hawley
  • The chemical effluents recklessly released by a chemical factory in the river causing water pollution, is an example of ________ cost.= social
  • The financing of the pure public goods has to be through public expenditure and not through market pricing.= True
  • A firm is a unit of production, where production is done with the aim to maximize= profits
  • By ' profits', the economist means total revenue minus __.= All costs
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis is= The analysis undertaken to judge the investment of any project , Refers to finding out the worth of investment , Enable ranking of optional investments
  • The railways use a lot of coal in firing the steam locomotives. This act causes= a lot of sufferings to the people near the railway. , cost to the society. , no cost to the railways.
  • Marginal cost pricing explains that the= Price charged should be equal to the marginal cost , Cost price sets the lower limits for firm’s price , Cost price ensures the possible level of profitability
  • Implicit costs are the= cost of resources owned by the firm,Opportunity costs are also known as= alternative costs ,The difference between average= total cost &average fixed ,The difference between average cost and average revenue= is average profit
  • The short run Average Cost (A.C.) curve is U shaped.= True
  • Cyclical fluctuations are recurrent in nature= True
  • The number of buyers & sellers operating under perfect competition is= large
  • The relation between variable input and ouput= is direct
  • In the market, any one who agrees to pay the requisite price of a product would be excluded from their consumption.= False
  • A downward movement from one point to another point on the same demand curve implies= expansion
  • Inflation is characterized by demand which is in= excess of supply
  • surplus
  • Defence service is an example of ________ good.= indivisible
  • public
  • Macro economic studies are based on empirical evidence.= True
  • According to the World Bank's approach, the trade able items would be valued at the corresponding world prices and the non-trade able items at the ________.= shadow prices
  • In the Long- run, supply of goods can be adjusted to the demand and therefore supply curve is horizontal to the X-axis.= False
  • The method of calculating depreciation in which the actual working hours of a capital asset are taken in to account is= service unit
  • The assumption of perfect competition in all the analytical theories is made by= Classical economists
  • Pure private goods =Divisible goods ,Self –interest= Market economy Danger from drunken drivers= Negative economies ,Impure public goods =Quasi - public goods
  • Investment is significant because= Addition to the real capital assets , It leads to increase in level of income , Increases accumulated wealth of the society
  • Under competitive conditions, market mechanism would automatically bring equilibrium at the level of= full employment
  • Factors influencing selling costs are= Type of product , Introduction of new goods , Technology changes
  • The slope of Supply curve of labour is always= backward
  • Equilibrium price is the price where the= quantity demanded equals quantity supplied ,Excess supply can be defined as= quantity supplied minus quantity demanded. ,Tea and sugar =Complimentary ,Excess demand can be defined as= quantity demanded minus quantity supplied
  • Features of Long -run market are=It is durable goods market , Supply can be increased or reduced according to the demand , Sellers at least recover minimum price for their goods
  • While calculating accounting profit, the costs which are considered are by nature= explicit
  • The market system of economy is based on the following foundations:=
  • Consumer's Sovereignty , Non-interference by the state. , Private Profit Motive
  • Under the disinvestments process, there is full transfer of ownership= True
  • Features of market period are= Related to few hours or few days , Related to perishable goods , The entire supply is to be disposed off on the same day
  • In the context of formulating an investment project, ________ feasibility means the availability of supervisors for implementing and running the project smoothly and professionally.= management
  • Scope of Managerial Economics deals with= Demand analysis and forecasting , Production function & cost analysis , Inventory management adverting, price system
  • The observation of economic histories of the United States & West European countries shows that competition , the heart of market mechanism gives rise to= monopolies
  • Chance profit= Outbreak of war ,Innovation theory of profit= Joseph Schumpeter ,Uncertainly bearing= F. H. Knight theory ,Implicit cost = Opportunity cost
  • Demand is related to price, time and place.= True
  • When there is ________ in foreign demand for the goods manufactured in a country, exports increase and prices of commodities in the country Increase.=Increase
  • Government has carried out various rounds of disinvestments of equity shareholding, realizing a total amount of ________.=Rs. 20,320 crores
  • Pollution control certificate-=Government action,Air pollution=Negative externality,Radio or TV signal=Positive externality,Negotiation=Private Action
  • The entrepreneur gets Pure Profit for :-=Undertaking risk & uncertainty , For co-ordination & organizing production , For innovation
  • A firm is a technical unit of a given capacity of output.=False
  • When a firm’s A.R. (average revenue) is greater than A.C. (average cost), it gets a profit which is :-=Super normal
  • According to J.M. Keynes, there is inducement to invest, when the marginal efficiency of capital is greater than :-=Rate of interest
  • Demand for several products like ice-cream, chocolate, bhel-puri depends on :-=Individual tastes
  • Demand Curve :-=Is a graphical presentation , Slopes downward , Explain the relation between price and demand
  • Distinction between private sector and public sector is determined on the basis of :-=Economic system , Motive , Principle of pricing
  • When with a rise in price, the total outlay falls, or with a fall in price, the total outlay rises, elasticity of demand is :-=Greater than one

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